SOCIALISTREPUBLIC OF VIETNAM Independence – Freedom – Happiness —————
The Law No. 91/2015/QH13
Hanoi, November 24, 2015
Pursuant to the Constitution of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam;
The National Assembly promulgates a Civil Code.
Article 1. Scope
The Civil Code provides the legal status, legal standards for the conduct of natural and juridical persons; the rights and obligations of natural and juridical person (hereinafter referred to as persons) regarding personal and property rights and obligations in relations established on the basis of equality, freedom of will, independence of property and self-responsibility (hereinafter referred to as civil relations).
Article 2. Recognition, respect, protection and guarantee of civil rights
In the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, all civil rights are recognized, respected, protected and guaranteed under the Constitution and law.
Civil rights may be limited as prescribed in law in exceptional circumstances that due to national defense and security, social safety and order, social ethics and the community’s health.
Article 3. Basic principles of civil law
Every person shall be equal in civil relations, may not use any reason for unequal treatment to others, and enjoy the same protection policies of law regarding moral rights and economic rights.
Each person establishes, exercises/fulfills and terminates his/her civil rights and obligations on the basis of freely and voluntarily entering into commitments and/or agreements. Each commitment or agreement that does not violate regulations of law and is not contrary to social ethics shall be bound by contracting parties and must be respected by other entities.
Each person must establish, exercise/ fulfill, or terminate his/her civil rights and/or obligations in the principle of goodwill and honesty.
The establishment, exercise and termination of civil rights and/or obligations may not infringe national interests, pubic interests, lawful rights and interests of other persons.
Each person shall be liable for his/her failure to fulfill or the incorrect fulfillment of any such civil obligations.
Article 4. Application of the Civil Code
This Law is a common law that applies to civil relations.
Any relevant law that applies to civil relations in specific fields may not be contrary to the basic principle of civil law prescribed in Article 3 of this Law.
If another relevant law has no regulation or has regulations that infringe Clause 2 of this Article, the regulations of this Law shall apply.
In cases where an international agreement to which the Socialist Republic of Vietnam is a signatory contains provisions different from the provisions of this Code with regard to a same matter, the provisions of such agreement shall apply.
Article 5. Application of practices
Practices mean rules of conduct obvious to define rights and obligations of persons in specific civil relations, forming and repeating in a long time, recognized and applying generally in a region, race, or a community or a field of civil.
In cases where it is neither provided for by law nor agreed upon by the parties, practices may apply but they must not contravene the principles provided for in Article 3 of this Code.
Article 6. Application of analogy of law
In cases where an issue rises under scope of civil law which it is neither provided for by law nor agreed upon by the parties nor, nor applied by practices, analogy of law shall apply.
In cases where it is impossible to apply analogy of law as prescribed in Clause 1 of this Article, basic principles of civil law provided for in Article 3 of this Code, case law, and justice shall apply.
Article 7. State policies on civil relations
1. The establishment, performance and termination of civil rights and obligations must ensure the preservation of national identities, respect and promote good customs, practices and traditions, solidarity, mutual affection and cooperation, the principle of every individual for the community
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